Rising threats in cyber security motivated EDAM to prepare this report that covers the basics of cyber security with a focus on critical infrastructure and nuclear power plants. This collection includes four complementary chapters to help the reader understand Turkey’s cyber security challenges with a focus on nuclear power plants as components of the country’s critical infrastructure. The first chapter introduces the concept of cyberwarfare as the next Revolution in Military Affairs, and looks into cyber trends, emerging state capabilities and threats from Turkey’s perspective. The second chapter examines the cyber security scene in Turkey by both looking into the relative governmental agencies, institutions and security forces working on ensuring the country’s cyber security and develops policies in these areas, on the other hand, malicious hacker groups operating within the country. The third chapter provides a conceptual introduction to cyber space, cyber attackers and cyber security, and focuses on the international aspect of nuclear power plant cyber security by exploring the cases of United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The fourth and final chapter examines the relevance of cyber security for nuclear power plants, investigates previous cyber incidents, explores existing vulnerabilities and evaluates Turkey’s current capabilities in terms of ensuring cyber security resilience.