Nuclear Weapons Free Zones

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Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty prohibits nuclear explosions, radioactive waste disposal, and military deployments in the area south of the 60 degrees south latitude. The 12 original signatories were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Currently, 48 nations have agreed to the Antarctic Treaty. However, only 28 control the decision making process. These 28 “Consultative Parties” include the original 12 signatories and Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, India, Italy, South Korea, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

Turkey is a non-consultative member. The non-consultative members are Austria, Belarus, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, North Korea, Malaysia, Monaco, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, and Venezuela.

Opened for signature on 1 December 1959
Entered into force on 23 June 1961
Turkey ratified the Treaty on 25 January 1996

Click here to read the full treaty text

Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (LANWFZ) (Tlatelolco Treaty)

The Treaty is designed to prevent the presence, testing, use, or acquisition of nuclear weapons by the Signatories or third parties. The Signatories agreed to prohibit the receipt, storage, installation, deployment or any form of possession of all nuclear weapons, directly or indirectly by any of the Parties, by order of third parties or by any other means. The Parties also agreed to abstain from carrying out, promoting, or authorizing, directly or indirectly, the testing, use, fabrication, production, possession, or control of all nuclear weapons or to participate in these activities in any form.

Opened for signature on 14 February 1967
Entered into force on 25 April 1969
Signatories (33 countries)

Country Signed Ratified
Antigua and Barbuda 11 October 1983 11 October 1983
Argentina 27 September 1967 18 January 1994
Bahamas 29 November 1976 26 April 1977
Barbados 18 October 1968 25 April 1969
Belize 14 February 1992 9 November 1994
Bolivia 14 February 1967 18 February 1969
Brazil 9 May 1967 29 January 1968
Chile 14 February 1967 9 October 1974
Colombia 14 February 1967 4 August 1972
Costa Rica 14 February 1967 25 August 1969
Cuba 25 March 1995 4 October 2002
Dominica 2 May 1989 4 June 1993
Dominican Republic 28 July 1967 14 June 1968
Ecuador 14 February 1967 11 February 1969
El Salvador 14 February 1967 22 April 1968
Grenada 29 April 1975 20 June 1975
Guatemala 14 February 1967 6 February 1970
Guyana 16 January 1995 16 January 1995
Haiti 14 February 1967 23 May 1969
Honduras 14 February 1967 23 September 1968
Jamaica 26 October 1967 29 June 1969
Mexico 14 February 1967 20 September 1967
Nicaragua 15 February 1967 24 October 1968
Panama 14 February 1967 11 June 1971
Paraguay 26 April 1967 19 March 1969
Peru 14 February 1967 4 March 1969
St. Kitts and Nevis 18 February 1994 18 April 1995
St. Lucia 25 August 1992 2 June 1995
St. Vincent and Grenadines 14 February 1992 14 February 1992
Suriname 13 February 1967 10 June 1977
Trinidad and Tobago 27 June 1967 3 December 1970
Uruguay 14 February 1967 20 August 1968
Venezuela 14 February 1967 23 March 1970

Additional Protocol – Provides for the application of the status of denuclearization in territories for which, de jure or de facto, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States are internationally responsible, and which lie within the limits of the geographic zone established by the treaty.

Country Signed Ratified
France 2 March 1979 24 August 1992
Netherlands 15 March 1968 26 July 1971
United Kingdom 20 December 1967 11 December 1969
United States 26 May 1977 23 November 1981

Additional Protocol II obliges all five nuclear weapons states (NWS) to respect the status of denuclearization of the relevant geographic zone and commits them not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against parties to the treaty. All five NWS have acceded to the protocol.

Country Signed Ratified
China 21 August 1973 2 June 1974
France 18 July 1973 22 March 1974
USSR (Russian Federation) 18 May 1978 8 January 1979
United Kingdom 20 December 1976 11 December 1969
United States 1 April 1968 12 May 1971

Click here to read the full treaty text

Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (SEANWFZ) Treaty (Bangkok Treaty)

Signatories have agreed not to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire, possess or have control over nuclear weapons; station nuclear weapons; or test or use nuclear weapons anywhere inside or outside the treaty zone; not to seek or receive any assistance in this; not to take any action to assist or encourage the manufacture or acquisition of any nuclear explosive device by any state; not to provide source or special fissionable materials or equipment to any non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS), or any NWS unless subject to safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); to prevent in the territory of States Parties the stationing of any nuclear explosive device; to prevent the testing of any nuclear explosive device; not to dump radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter at sea anywhere within the zone, and to prevent the dumping of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter by anyone in the territorial sea of the States Parties.

The treaty covers the territories of the signatories, including the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zones. The protocol is currently open for signature by the five permanent nuclear weapons state. To date, none of the NWS states have signed the treaty because of the specific language about the EEZ and continental shelf, restrictions on the use of nuclear weapons in the zone (negative security assurances), or from within the zone against targets outside the zone, and the passage of nuclear powered ships through the zone via international waters as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Opened for signature on 15 December 1995
Entered into force on 28 March 1997
Signatories (10 countries)

Country Signature Ratified
Brunei 15 December 1995 22 November 1996
Cambodia 15 December 1995 27 March 1997
Indonesia 15 December 1995 10 April 1997
Laos 15 December 1995 16 July 1996
Malaysia 15 December 1995 11 October 1996
Myanmar/Burma 15 December 1995 17 July 1996
Philippines 15 December 1995 25 June 2001
Singapore 15 December 1995 27 March 1997
Thailand 15 December 1995 20 March 1997
Vietnam 15 December 1995 26 November 1996

Protocol

Country Signed Ratified
China
France
USSR (Russian Federation)
United Kingdom
United States

 

Click here to read the full treaty text

South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty of Rarotonga

States Parties are obliged not to manufacture or otherwise acquire, possess, or have control over any nuclear explosive device anywhere inside or outside the Treaty zone; not to seek or receive any assistance in this; not to take any action to assist or encourage the manufacture or acquisition of any nuclear explosive device by any State; and not to provide sources or special fissionable materials or equipment to any non-nuclear weapon State (NNWS), or any nuclear weapon State (NWS) unless it is subject to safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). States Parties are also obligated to prevent the stationing of any nuclear explosive device; to prevent the testing of any nuclear explosive device; not to dump radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter at sea, anywhere within the Treaty zone, and to prevent the dumping of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter by anyone in the territorial sea of the States Parties.

Opened for signature on 6 August 1985
Entered into force on 11 December 1986
Signatories (17 Countries)

Country Signed Ratified
Australia 6 August 1985 11 December 1986
Cook Islands 6 August 1985 28 October 1985
Micronesia
Fiji 6 August 1985 4 October 1985
Kiribati 6 August 1985 28 October 1985
Marshal Island Republic
Nauru 17 July 1986 13 April 1987
New Zealand 06 August 1985 13 November 1986
Nilue 06 August 1985 12 May 1986
Palau
Papua New Guinea 16 September 1985 15 September 1985
Samoa 06 August 1985 15 September 1989
Solomon Islands 29 May 1987 27 January 1989
Tonga 2 August 1996 18 December 2000
Tuvalu 6 August 1985 16 January 1986
Vanuatu 16 September 1995 9 February 1996

Protocol 1 – Calls on the Parties responsible for territories in the Treaty zones to apply the prohibitions of the Treaty.

Country Signed Ratified
France 25 March 1996 20 September 1996
United Kingdom 25 March 1996 19 September 1997
The United States 25 March 1996

Protocol 2 – Calls on the nuclear weapons states to not use or threaten the use nuclear explosive devices against the Signatories.

Country Signed Ratified
China 10 February 1987 21 October 1988
France 25 March 1996 20 September 1996
USSR (Russian Federation) 15 December 1986 21 April 1988
United Kingdom 25 March 1996 19 September 1997
United States 25 March 1996

Protocol 3 – Calls on the nuclear weapons states not to test nuclear explosive devices within the zone established by the Treaty.

Country Signed Ratified
China 10 February 1987 21 October 1988
France 25 March 1996 20 September 1996
USSR (Russian Federation) 15 December 1986 21 April 1988
United Kingdom 25 March 1996 19 September 1997
United States 25 March 1996

Click here to read the full treaty text

African Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (ANWFZ) Treaty (Pelindaba Treaty)

The Parties undertake not to conduct research on, develop, manufacture, stockpile or otherwise acquire, possess, or have control over any nuclear explosive device by any means anywhere; not to seek or receive any assistance in the research on, development, manufacture, stockpiling or acquisition, or possession of any nuclear explosive device; and not to take any action to assist or encourage the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling or acquisition, or possession of any nuclear explosive device. The Parties also undertake to prohibit, in their territory, the stationing of any nuclear explosive device.

The Signatories are allowed to decide whether to allow visits by foreign ships and aircraft to their ports and airfields, transit of their airspace by foreign aircraft, and navigation by foreign ships in their territorial seas or archipelago waters. The Treaty further prohibits the Parties from testing or allowing testing in their territory, or assisting or encouraging the testing of any nuclear explosive device; as well as the dumping of radioactive waste.

The Parties undertake to declare any capability for the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices; dismantle and destroy any nuclear explosive device that they have manufactured prior to the coming into force of this Treaty; destroy facilities for the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices or, where possible, to convert them to peaceful uses; and to permit the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the processes of dismantling and destruction of the nuclear explosive devices, as well as the destruction or conversion of the facilities for their production.

The Treaty also allows the Parties to engage in peaceful nuclear activities and obligates them to conclude full-scope safeguard agreements with the IAEA in order to verify the peaceful character of such activities. The Parties also undertake not to take, or assist, or encourage any action aimed at an armed attack by conventional or other means against nuclear installations in the Treaty’s zone of application.

Opened for signature on 11 April 1996
Entered into force on 15 July 2009
52 Signatories / 36 Ratifications

Country Signed Ratified
Algeria 11 April 1996 23 December 1997
Angola 11 April 1996
Benin 11 April 1996 17 July 2007
Botswana 9 June 1998 4 February 1999
Burkina Faso 11 April 1996 12 May 1998
Burundi 11 April 1996 15 July 2009
Cameroon 11 April 1996 11 June 2009
Cape Verde 11 April 1996
Central African Republic 11 April 1996
Chad 11 April 1996 18 January 2012
Comoros 11 April 1996 24 July 2012
Congo 11 April 1996
Democratic Republic of the Congo 11 April 1996
Cot d’Ivoire 11 April 1996 20 May 1999
Djibouti 11 April 1996
Egypt 11 April 1996
Equatorial Guinea 20 December 2002
Eretria 11 April 1996
Ethiopia 11 April 1996 18 February 2008
Gabon 11 April 1996 18 May 2007
Gambia 11 April 1996 3 September 1996
Ghana 11 April 1996 27 June 2011
Guinea-Bissau 11 April 1996 4 January 2012
Guinea 11 April 1996 26 May 2009
Kenya 11 April 1996 15 November 2000
Lesotho 11 April 1996 6 March 2002
Liberia 9 July 1996
Libya 11 April 1996 12 February 2005
Madagascar 12 December 2003
Malawi 11 April 1996 6 March 2009
Mali 11 April 1996 27 May 1999
Mauritania 11 April 1996 10 January 1998
Mauritius 11 April 1996 19 April 1996
Morocco* 11 April 1996
Mozambique 11 April 1996 26 March 2008
Namibia 11 April 1996 1 March 2012
Niger 11 April 1996
Nigeria 11 April 1996 20 April 2000
Rwanda 11 April 1996 23 January 2007
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic** 20 June 2006
Sao Tome and Principe 9 July 1996
Senegal 11 April 1996 20 September 2006
Seychelles 9 July 1996
Sierra Leone 11 April 1996
Somalia 23 February 2006
South Africa 11 April 1996 13 March 1998
Sudan 11 April 1996
Swaziland 11 April 1996 13 November 1996
Togo 11 April 1996 26 June 2000
Tunisia 11 April 1996 14 September 2009
Uganda 11 April 1996
United Republic of Tanzania 11 April 1996 27 May 1998
Zambia 11 April 1996 28 June 2010
Zimbabwe