As Russian deployments and air operations in Syria unfold, it is becoming clear that Moscow has multiple interests in its involvement in Syria beyond its declared goal of fighting ISIS. In a move that may have multiple military and political objectives, Russia has recently violated Turkish, and hence NATO, airspace. Moscow’s actions so far have clearly displayed that Russian involvement in Syria will be precarious for Turkish and Transatlantic interests for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, increased Russian and Iranian influence and military presence in both Syria and Iraq may have long-lasting consequences over the geostrategic balance in the region. EDAM’s latest discussion paper investigates the military and political rationales of Russia’s latest overtures and their impacts for NATO, Turkey and the region.